Elements of Art and Principles of Art
Elements of Art
Shape / Form
Shape implies spatial form and isusually perceived as two-dimensional. Form has depth, length, and width andresides in space. It is perceived as three-dimensional.
Colors all comefrom the three primaries and black and white. They have three properties – hue,value, and intensity.
Value refers to relative lightness and darkness and isperceived in terms of varying levels of contrast.
Texture refers to the tactile qualitiesof a surface (actual) or to the visual representation of such surface qualities(implied).
Space / Perspective
Space refers to the area in which artis organized. Perspective is representing a volume of space or a 3-dimensionalobject on a flat surface.
Principles of art
Pattern refersto the repetition or reoccurrence of a design element, exact or varied, whichestablishes a visual beat.
Rhythm / Movement
Rhythm or movement refers to the suggestion of motionthrough the use of various elements.
Proportion / Scale
Proportion isthe size relationship of parts to a whole and to one another. Scale refers torelating size to a constant, such as a human body.
Balance is the impression of equilibrium in a pictorialor sculptural composition. Balance is often referred to as symmetrical,asymmetrical, or radial.
Unity is achieved when the components of a work of artare perceived as harmonious, giving the work a sense of completion.
Emphasis refers to the created center of interest, theplace in an artwork where your eye first lands.