Elements of Art and Principles of Art

Elements of Art

Line is the path of a point moving through space.

Shape / Form

Shape implies spatial form and isusually perceived as two-dimensional. Form has depth, length, and width andresides in space. It is perceived as three-dimensional.


Colors all comefrom the three primaries and black and white. They have three properties – hue,value, and intensity.


Value refers to relative lightness and darkness and isperceived in terms of varying levels of contrast.


Texture refers to the tactile qualitiesof a surface (actual) or to the visual representation of such surface qualities(implied).

Space / Perspective

Space refers to the area in which artis organized. Perspective is representing a volume of space or a 3-dimensionalobject on a flat surface.

Principles of art


Pattern refersto the repetition or reoccurrence of a design element, exact or varied, whichestablishes a visual beat.

Rhythm / Movement

Rhythm or movement refers to the suggestion of motionthrough the use of various elements.

Proportion / Scale

Proportion isthe size relationship of parts to a whole and to one another. Scale refers torelating size to a constant, such as a human body.


Balance is the impression of equilibrium in a pictorialor sculptural composition. Balance is often referred to as symmetrical,asymmetrical, or radial.


Unity is achieved when the components of a work of artare perceived as harmonious, giving the work a sense of completion.


Emphasis refers to the created center of interest, theplace in an artwork where your eye first lands.



Last Modified on August 18, 2016